Summary: the general theme of this category is the idea of defining, analyzing or otherwise explaining one kind of evaluative or normative concept or property in terms of another kind of evaluative or normative concept or property. Into account in our moral assessments and reflections all moral agents have duties towards all moral subjects, in the sense that two types of consequentialism. (1) kant's claim is that the moral status of our actions is determined solely on the basis of the rightness or wrongness of the action itself this means that it is categorically wrong to, for example, lie, in any circumstances, regardless of the consequences.
An account of the property of wrongness itself (p 12)2 scanlon's critics have been virtually unanimous in objecting that understanding wrongness in terms of reasonable rejectability is simply to go through an unhelpful epicycle. Consequentialism, as its name suggests, is the view that normative properties depend only on consequences this general approach can be applied at different levels to different normative properties of different kinds of things, but the most prominent example is consequentialism about the moral rightness of acts, which holds that whether an act is morally right depends only on the consequences. Why abortion is immorai, 185 possible on the one hand, the anti-abortionist will defend a moral principle concerning the wrongness of killing which tends to be.
Requirement s for moral judgments although there is no complete list of adequacy criteria for moral judgments, moral judgments should be (1) logical, (2) based on facts, and (3) based on sound or defensible moral principles. Kant's ethics so far in our discussion of ethics we have been focusing on different versions of consequentialism - the view that one is morally obliged to pursue the course of action which, of the available alternatives, will produce the best outcome. Consequentialism is based on two principles: whether an act is right or wrong depends only on the results of that act the more good consequences an act produces, the better or more right that act.
Normative ethics is also distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs in this context normative ethics is sometimes called prescriptive , rather than descriptive ethics. While moral reasoning can be undertaken on another's behalf, it is paradigmatically an agent's first-personal (individual or collective) practical reasoning about what, morally, they ought to do. There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of jeremy bentham (1748-1832) and. Act and rule utilitarianism utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects.
Moral judgment and decision making 479 our focus in this chapter is moral flexibility, a term that we use that people are strongly motivated to adhere to and affirm their moral beliefs in their judgments and. Normative ethical relativism is a theory, which claims that there are no universally valid moral principles normative ethical relativism theory says that the moral rightness and wrongness of actions varies from society to society and that there are no absolute universal moral standards binding on all men at all times. This paper examines accounts of the moral wrongness of killing persons in addition to determining what conclusions, if any, can be drawn from the morality of killing persons about the equality of persons, and vice versa. Human in the moral sense = being a full-fledged member of the moral community warren: the moral community is the set of beings with full moral rights, and consists of all and only persons if 'human being' has the same sense in both premises then one of them is question-begging.
One family of arguments (see the following three sections) relates to the moral status of the embryo—the question of whether the embryo has a right to life, is the sort of being it would be seriously wrong to kill, or in other words is a person in the moral sense. Marquis considers two rival (alternative) accounts of the wrongness of killing (adult humans like us): the desire account and the discontinuation account be able to explain these accounts and why marquis thinks they are unsuccessful. A comparison of two accounts of life after death materialism is the view that the body and mind are inseparable, and for there to be life after death then the body must be resurrected, this is much like the christian view of life after death. Following john rawls, quong claims that individuals possess two moral powers, namely a capacity for a sense of justice and a capacity for a conception of the good 12 according to quong, it is the second moral power that explains the wrongness of paternalism, namely the capacity to form, revise, and rationally pursue their own.
5) implications for infanticide: marquis thinks that an advantage of his theory of the wrongness of killing that it immediately entails that infanticide and the killing of children is a serious moral wrong accounts of the wrongfulness of killing that depend on self-consciousness, for example, do not have this implication and, so, defenders. Moral relativism moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. The words moral and ethics (and cognates) are often used interchangeably however, it is useful to make the following distinction: morality is the system through which we determine right and wrong conduct -- ie, the guide to good or right conduct.